Society of Jesus

Society of Jesus

The Society of Jesus (SJLatinSocietas Iesu) is a religious order of the Catholic Church headquartered in Rome. It was founded by Ignatius of Loyola with the approval of Pope Paul III in 1540. The members are called Jesuits (LatinIesuitæ).[2] The society is engaged in evangelization and apostolic ministry in 112 nations. Jesuits work in education, research, and cultural pursuits. Jesuits also give retreats, minister in hospitals and parishes, sponsor direct social ministries, and promote ecumenical dialogue.

Saint Ignatius of Loyola, a Navarre nobleman from the Pyrenees area of northern Spain, founded the society after discerning his spiritual vocation while recovering from a wound sustained in the Battle of Pamplona. He composed the Spiritual Exercises to help others follow the teachings of Jesus Christ. In 1534, Ignatius and six other young men, including Francis Xavier and Peter Faber, gathered and professed vows of poverty, chastity, and later obedience, including a special vow of obedience to the Pope in matters of mission direction and assignment. Ignatius’s plan of the order’s organization was approved by Pope Paul III in 1540 by a bull containing the “Formula of the Institute”.

Ignatius was a nobleman who had a military background, and the members of the society were supposed to accept orders anywhere in the world, where they might be required to live in extreme conditions. Accordingly, the opening lines of the founding document declared that the society was founded for “whoever desires to serve as a soldier of God[a] to strive especially for the defence and propagation of the faith and for the progress of souls in Christian life and doctrine.”[4] Jesuits are thus sometimes referred to colloquially as “God’s soldiers”,[5] “God’s marines”,[6] or “the Company”, which evolved from references to Ignatius’ history as a soldier and the society’s commitment to accepting orders anywhere and to endure any conditions.[7] The society participated in the Counter-Reformation and, later, in the implementation of the Second Vatican Council.

As of 2012, the Jesuits formed the largest single religious order of priests and brothers in the Catholic Church.[12] The Jesuits have experienced a decline in numbers in recent decades. As of 2018 the society had 15,842 members, 11,389 priests and 4,453 Jesuits in formation, which includes brothers and scholastics. This represents a 43.4 percent decline since 1977, when the society had a total membership of 28,038, of which 20,205 were priests.[13] This decline is most pronounced in Europe and the Americas, with relatively modest membership gains occurring in Asia and Africa.[14][15] According to Patrick Reilly of the National Catholic Register, there seems to be no “Pope Francis effect” in counteracting the fall of vocations among the Jesuits.[16] Twenty-eight novices took first vows in the Jesuits in the United States and Haiti in 2019.[17] In September 2019, the general superior of the Jesuits, Arturo Sosa, estimated that by 2034 the number would decrease to about 10,000 Jesuits, with a much younger average age than in 2019, and with a shift away from Europe and into Latin America, Africa, and India.[18]

The society is divided into 83 provinces along with six independent regions and ten dependent regions.[11] On 1 January 2007, members served in 112 nations on six continents with the largest number in India and the US. Their average age was 57.3 years: 63.4 years for priests, 29.9 years for scholastics, and 65.5 years for brothers.[19]

The current Superior General of the Jesuits is Arturo Sosa. The society is characterized by its ministries in the fields of missionary work, human rights, social justice and, most notably, higher education. It operates colleges and universities in various countries around the world and is particularly active in the Philippines and India. In the United States the Jesuits have historical ties to 28 colleges and universities and 61 high schools. The degree to which the Jesuits are involved in the administration of each institution varies. As of September 2018, 15 of the 28 Jesuit universities in the US had non-Jesuit lay presidents.[20] According to a 2014 article in The Atlantic, “the number of Jesuit priests who are active in everyday operations at the schools isn’t nearly as high as it once was”.[21] Worldwide it runs 322 secondary schools and 172 colleges and universities. A typical conception of the mission of a Jesuit school will often contain such concepts as proposing Christ as the model of human life, the pursuit of excellence in teaching and learning, lifelong spiritual and intellectual growth,[22] and training men and women for others.[23]

Ignatius laid out his original vision for the new order in the “Formula of the Institute of the Society of Jesus”,[24] which is “the fundamental charter of the order, of which all subsequent official documents were elaborations and to which they had to conform.”[25] He ensured that his formula was contained in two papal bulls signed by Pope Paul III in 1540 and by Pope Julius III in 1550.[24] The formula expressed the nature, spirituality, community life, and apostolate of the new religious order. Its famous opening statement echoed Ignatius’ military background:

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